1. Sole Proprietorship: An Overview
2. Starting a Sole Proprietorship with a Spouse
3. Sole Proprietorship: Items of Consideration Regarding Spouses

Can sole proprietorship have two owners is a question with a simple answer. You cannot have more than one owner with a sole proprietorship. As its name implies, a sole proprietorship can have only one sole owner.

Sole Proprietorship: An Overview

If you want to begin operating a sole proprietorship, you can simply begin doing business without filing any paperwork or paying any fees. All states recognize such business entities, and indicate that once you begin offering your products or services to the public, you are said to be operating a sole proprietorship.

As previously noted, however, the sole proprietorship can only involve one person. Therefore, you cannot bring in any other partners or employees. Once this occurs, you must formally register as some other type of legal business structure, whether it is a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company (LLC).

Starting a Sole Proprietorship with a Spouse

Regardless of who the other person is, you cannot start a sole proprietorship with anyone. If you do choose to begin a business with your spouse, then you will have to form a general partnership. However, if you are looking for personal limited liability protection, then neither the sole proprietorship nor general partnership are good choices for you. Both of these entities provide that the owners will be personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business.

Furthermore, operating as either type of business structure means that you will need to pay taxes on the company’s profits. A partnership operates as a pass-through tax entity, meaning that the profits and losses pass through to the owners who report it on their personal income tax returns. Similarly, a sole proprietor will report all of the business income on his own personal income tax return, using his own social security number on all documentation related to the business.

Sole Proprietorship: Items of Consideration Regarding Spouses

If you do intend to form a sole proprietorship, you should keep in mind the following considerations:

  1. Filing a joint tax return
  2. Tax consequences
  3. Equal ownership

Since the IRS will not recognize your business as a sole proprietorship if you have more than one owner, you will want to ensure that you file your taxes properly by not indicating that you own the company with anyone else. However, if you file a joint tax return with your significant other, and that joint return includes the business’s profits, you won’t be considered a partnership. When filling out your tax form, you will include the profits on Schedule C.

If you want to have your spouse do volunteer work for your sole proprietorship, you will have to be careful as to what you have your spouse do and how many hours he or she works for the business. If your significant other has any involvement in your marketing materials or signing of contracts, as the IRS might deem your spouse a partner in the business, and thus convert your sole proprietorship to a partnership. If this does happen, you will be faced with penalties and other tax implications.

Another item of consideration is equal ownership. If you want to equally own a sole proprietorship with your spouse, then you will automatically be converted to a partnership. This means that you will be taxed differently, and you will likely be forced to file formal paperwork and pay applicable fees associated with forming a partnership.

If you try to operate a 2-person sole proprietorship, you will run into many issues, including potential legal suits that might be brought by business vendors and other creditors who assumed that they were entering into business contracts with a sole proprietor, and not a partnership. While this might not be of significance to most business contacts, the state and IRS could force stiff penalties against you and your spouse personally, requiring you to pay for the period of time you operated without having a formal registered partnership.

This could include not only financial penalties, but also the fees that are required for the official partnership registration. If, however, you want to form another type of business structure, you can form a general or limited partnership, limited liability partnership, S corporation, or C corporation.

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