LLC estimated tax is the method a limited liability company must use to pay taxes that are not withheld. This typically includes pension, self-employment, unemployment compensation, rent, interest, dividends, alimony, prizes, and proceeds from the sale of assets.

LLC Taxation

An LLC is considered a pass-through tax entity because the owners report the business income and expenses on their individual tax returns. Sole proprietorships and single-member LLCs should use Schedule C for this calculation.

To calculate estimated business taxes, combine your business income with other income sources, deductions, withholding, and credits and calculate Social Security/Medicare tax along with self-employment taxes.

Partnerships, S corporations, and LLCs with more than one member provide owners with a Schedule K-1 that details their share of profits and losses. Corporations must make estimated tax payments if they are expected to owe more than $500 for the year.

Use Publication 505, which contains an estimated tax worksheet, if you are a partner, sole proprietor, or shareholder of an S corporation. Corporations can use Form 1120-W.

You can use previous-year income to estimate your income for the tax year or you can extrapolate income for the rest of the year from your income to date. Expenses can be calculated using the same methods. Single-member LLCs are considered disregarded entities by the IRS and can use either their Social Security number or employer ID number (EIN).

Passive income, including income from rent, trusts, and royalties, is reported using Schedule E. LLCs that earn more than $400 in a tax year must pay self-employment tax using Schedule SE.

A quarterly Form 941 must be filed if your LLC is withholding more than $1,000 in federal taxes from employees during the tax year. For lower withholding amounts, file Form 943 once during the year. You must provide employees with Form W-2 and file Forms W-2 and W-3 with the Social Security Administration.

Form 1065 is used for multi-member LLCs to report the percentage of profit and loss distribution among partners.

Minnesota Estimated Tax

If you don't pay enough state tax, you may be required to pay estimated tax in Minnesota. After subtracting refundable credits and withholdings, if you will owe more than $500 in state income tax then you are required to pay estimated tax. This amount is called your tax liability.

Your estimated tax payments along with your credits and withholdings must equal either 90 percent of your current year tax liability or 100 percent of your past-year tax liability (110 percent for more than $150,000 in adjusted gross income for the year).

The state requires most taxpayers who owe estimated tax to make quarterly payments as follows:

  • April 15
  • June 15
  • September 15
  • January 15 of the next year

For businesses, payments are due on the 15th day of the fiscal year's fourth, sixth, and nine months and the first month of the following fiscal year.

Those who earn at least 66 percent of their gross income from fishing and farming are required to make only one estimated tax payment on January 15 of the next tax year. This is not required if taxes are filed and paid by March 1.

Federal adjusted gross income can be calculated using Estimated Tax for Individuals (Form 1040-ES). Individual income tax liability is calculated using Form M1. Line 1 will ask you to enter your federal taxable income. You'll also need your filing status and the current Minnesota income tax rates. When you calculate your liability, divide the total by four to find the amount of your estimated payment.

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