Delaware Corporation Bylaws - Free Download on UpCounsel

Delaware Corporation Bylaws

Startup Law ResourcesIncorporate

The Bylaws of the company state the internal rules of the corporation like the election of Board members and the sale of stock.


BYLAWS
OF
[
Company Name]

[Date]

ARTICLE I:              IDENTIFICATION

1.      Name. The name of the company is [Company Name] (the “Company”).

2.      Principal And Business Offices. The Company may have such principal and other business offices, either within or outside of the state of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may designate or as the Company’s business may require from time to time.

3.      Registered Agent And Office. The address of the Company’s registered agent may change from time to time by or under the authority of the Board of Directors, or the registered agent.  The business office of the Company’s registered agent shall be identical to the registered office.  The Company’s registered office may be but need not be identical with the Company’s principal office in the state of Delaware.  The Company’s initial registered office shall be in the [Registered Agent City], State of Delaware.

4.      Place Of Keeping Corporate Records. The records and documents required by law to be kept by the Company permanently shall be kept at the Company’s principal office.

ARTICLE II:            STOCKHOLDERS

1.      Annual Meeting. An annual meeting of the stockholders shall be held on such date as may be determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.  At each annual meeting, the stockholders shall elect directors to hold office for the term provided in Section 1 of Article III of these Bylaws.

2.      Special Meeting. A special meeting of the stockholders may be called by the President of the Company, the Board of Directors, or by such other officers or persons as the Board of Directors may designate.

3.      Place Of Stockholder Meetings. The Board of Directors may designate any place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the place of meeting for any annual meeting or for any special meeting.  If no such place is designated by the Board of Directors, the place of meeting will be the principal business office of the Company or the Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but will instead be held solely by means of remote communication as provided under Section 211 of the Delaware General Company Law.

4.      Notice Of Meetings. Unless waived as herein provided, whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, written notice of the meeting shall be given stating the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.  Such written notice shall be given not less than ten (10) days nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at the meeting.  If mailed, notice is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at the stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Company.  If electronically transmitted, then notice is deemed given when transmitted and directed to a facsimile number or electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice.  An affidavit of the secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Company that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
When a meeting is adjourned to reconvene at the same or another place, if any, or by means of remote communications, if any, in accordance with
Section 5 of Article II of these Bylaws, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken.       

5.      Quorum And Adjourned Meetings. Unless otherwise provided by law or the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, a majority of the shares entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of stockholders.  If a majority of the shares entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders is present in person or represented by proxy at such meeting, such stockholders may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of such number of stockholders as may leave less than a quorum.  If less than a majority of the shares entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders is present in person or represented by proxy at such meeting, a majority of the shares so represented may adjourn the meeting from time to time, to reconvene at the same or another place, if any, or by means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time, date, place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken; provided, however, that if the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.  At the adjourned meeting the Company may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting.

6.      Fixing Of Record Date.

6.1.   For the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) days nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting.  If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.  A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

6.2.   For the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is established by the Board of Directors, and which date shall not be more than ten (10) days after the date on which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors.  If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is required by law, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the Company by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal office, or an officer or agent of the Company having custody of the book in which the proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded.  Delivery to the Company’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested.  If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors and prior action by the Board of Directors is required by law, the record date for determining stockholders’ consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.   

6.3.   For the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect to any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix the record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty (60) days prior to such action.  If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining the stockholders for any such purpose shall be the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

7.      Voting List. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Company shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder.  Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting, (i) by a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Company.  In the event that the Company determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Company may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to the stockholders of the Company.  If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.  If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.  Except as otherwise provided by law, such list shall be the only evidence as to the identity of stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 7 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of the stockholders.  The Company shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list.

8.      Voting.  Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by each stockholder.  In all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders.  Directors shall be elected by plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by a proxy at the meeting entitled to vote on the election of directors.

9.      Proxies. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for him by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three (3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.  A duly executed proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power.  A proxy may remain irrevocable regardless of whether the interest with which it is coupled is an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the Company generally.

10.  Ratification Of Acts Of Directors And Officers. Except as otherwise provided by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, any transaction or contract or act of the Company or of the directors or the officers of the Company may be ratified by the affirmative vote of the holders of the number of shares which would have been necessary to approve such transaction, contract or act at a meeting of stockholders, or by the written consent of stockholders in lieu of a meeting.

11.  Informal Action Of Stockholders.

11.1.                    Any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Company, or any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be delivered to the Company by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted.  Prompt notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing.  In the event that the action which is consented to is such as would have required the filing of a certificate with any governmental body, if such action had been voted on by stockholders at a meeting thereof, the certificate filed shall state, in lieu of any statement required by law concerning any vote of stockholders, that consent had been given in accordance with the provisions of Section 228 of the Delaware General Company Law, and that notice has been given as provided in such section.

11.2.                    A telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a stockholder or proxy holder, or by a person or persons authorized to act for a stockholder or proxy holder, shall be deemed to be written, signed and dated for the purposes of this section 11, provided that any such telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered with information from which the Company can determine that the telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission was transmitted by the stockholder or proxy holder or by a person or persons authorized to act for the stockholder or proxy holder and the date on which such stockholder or proxy holder or authorized person or persons transmitted such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission. The date on which such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission is transmitted shall be deemed to be the date on which such consent was signed. No consent given by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission shall be deemed to have been delivered until such consent is reproduced in paper form and until such paper form shall be delivered to the Company by delivery to its principal place of business or to an officer or agent of the Company having custody of the book in which the proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Any copy, facsimile or other reliable reproduction of a consent in writing may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing for any and all purposes for which the original writing could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing.

12.  Organization. Such person as the Board of Directors may designate or, in the absence of such a designation, the president of the Company or, in his or her absence, such person as may be chosen by the holders of a majority of the shares entitled to vote who are present, in person or by proxy, shall call to order any meeting of the stockholders and act as chairman of such meeting.  In the absence of the secretary of the Company, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint a person to serve as secretary at the meeting.

ARTICLE III:                       DIRECTORS

1.      Number And Tenure Of Directors. The number of directors of the Company shall be determined from time to time by the Board.  Each director shall hold office until such director’s successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier resignation or removal.  Any director may resign at any time upon written notice to the Company.

2.      Election Of Directors. Except as otherwise provided in this Bylaws, directors shall be elected at the annual meeting of stockholders.  Directors need not be residents of the State of Delaware.  Elections of directors need not be by written ballot.

3.      Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by or at the request of the Chairman of the Board, the President or at least one-third of the number of directors constituting the whole board.  The person or persons authorized to call special meetings of the Board of Directors may fix any time, date or place, either within or without the State of Delaware, for holding any special meeting of the Board of Directors called by them.

4.      Notice Of Special Meetings Of The Board Of Directors. Notice of any special meeting of the Board of Directors shall be given, orally or in writing, by the person or persons calling the meeting to all directors at least one (1) day previous thereto.  If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the United States Mail so addressed, with first-class postage thereon prepaid.  If sent by any other means (including facsimile, courier, electronic mail or express mail, etc.), such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when actually delivered to the home or business address, electronic address or facsimile number of the director.

5.      Quorum. A majority of the total number of directors as provided in Section 1 of Article III of these Bylaws shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.  If less than a majority of the directors are present at a meeting of the Board of Directors, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice.

6.      Voting. The vote of the majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors, unless the Delaware General Company Law or the Certificate of Incorporation requires a vote of a greater number.

7.      Vacancies. Vacancies in the Board of Directors may be filled by a majority vote of the Board of Directors or by an election either at an annual meeting or at a special meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose.  Any directors elected by the stockholders to fill a vacancy shall hold office for the balance of the term for which he or she was elected.  A director appointed by the Board of Directors to fill a vacancy shall serve until the next meeting of stockholders at which directors are elected.

8.      Removal Of Directors. A director, or the entire Board of Directors, may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors; provided, however, that if cumulative voting obtains and less than the entire Board of Directors is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against such director’s removal would be sufficient to elect him if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire Board of Directors.

9.      Written Action By Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing, and the writing or writings are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.  Without limiting the manner by which consent may be given, members of the Board of Directors may consent by delivery of an electronic transmission when such transmission is directed to a facsimile number or electronic mail address at which the Company has consented to receive such electronic transmissions, and copies of the electronic transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.  Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

10.  Participation By Conference Telephone. Members of the Board of Directors, or any committee designated by such board, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors, or committee thereof, by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment as long as all persons participating in the meeting can speak with and hear each other, and participation by a director pursuant to this Section 10 shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

11.  Compensation Of Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.  The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary as director.  No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Company in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefore.  Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

ARTICLE IV:           WAIVER OF NOTICE

1.      Written Waiver Of Notice. A written waiver of any required notice, signed by or electronically transmitted by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the date stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice.  Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice.

2.      Attendance As Waiver Of Notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, and objects, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

ARTICLE V:                        COMMITTEES

1.      General Provisions. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole Board, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Company.  The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee.  In the absence or disqualification of a member at any meeting of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member.  Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Company, and may authorize the seal of the Company to be affixed to all papers which may require it, but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by law to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any bylaw of the corporation.

ARTICLE VI:                       OFFICERS

1.      General Provisions. The Board of Directors shall elect a President and a Secretary of the Company.  The Board of Directors may also elect a Chairman of the Board, one or more Vice Chairmen of the Board, one or more Vice Presidents, a Treasurer, one or more Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers and such additional officers as the Board of Directors may deem necessary or appropriate from time to time.  Any two or more offices may be held by the same person.  The officers elected by the Board of Directors shall have such duties as are hereafter described and such additional duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

2.      Election And Term Of Office. The officers of the Company shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors at the regular meeting of the Board of Directors held after each annual meeting of the stockholders.  If the election of officers is not held at such meeting, such election shall be held as soon thereafter as may be convenient.  New offices of the Company may be created and filled and vacancies in offices may be filled at any time, at a meeting or by the written consent of the Board of Directors.  Unless removed pursuant to Section 3 of Article VI of these Bylaws, each officer shall hold office until his successor has been duly elected and qualified, or until his earlier death or resignation.  Election or appointment of an officer or agent shall not of itself create contract rights.

3.      Removal Of Officers. Any officer or agent elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed by the Board of Directors whenever, in its judgment, the best interests of the Company would be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person(s) so removed.

4.      The Chief Executive Officer. The Board of Directors shall designate whether the Chairman of the Board, if one shall have been chosen, the President or another individual shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Company.  If a Chairman of the Board or another individual has not been chosen, or if a Chairman of the Board has been chosen but not designated Chief Executive Officer, then the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Company.  The Chief Executive Officer shall be the principal executive officer of the Company and shall in general supervise and control all of the business and affairs of the Company, unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors.  The Chief Executive Officer shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors and shall see that orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect.  The Chief Executive Officer may sign bonds, mortgages, certificates for shares and all other contracts and documents whether or not under the seal of the Company except in cases where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by law, by the Board of Directors or by these Bylaws to some other officer or agent of the Company.  The Chief Executive Officer shall have general powers of supervision and shall be the final arbiter of all differences between officers of the Company and his decision as to any matter affecting the Company shall be final and binding as between the officers of the Company subject only to the Board of Directors.

5.      The President. In the absence of the Chief Executive Officer or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, if the Chairman of the Board or another individual has not been designated Chief Executive Officer, the President shall perform the duties of the Chief Executive Officer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Chief Executive Officer.  At all other times the President shall have the active management of the business of the Company under the general supervision of the Chief Executive Officer.  The President shall have concurrent power with the Chief Executive Officer to sign bonds, mortgages, certificates for shares and other contracts and documents, whether or not under the seal of the Company except in cases where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by law, by the Board of Directors, or by these Bylaws to some other officer or agent of the Company.  In general, the President shall perform all duties incident to the office of president and such other duties as the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

6.      The Chairman Of The Board. The Chairman of the Board, if one is chosen, shall be chosen from among the members of the board.  If the Chairman of the Board has not been designated Chief Executive Officer, the Chairman of the Board shall perform such duties as may be assigned to the Chairman of the Board by the Chief Executive Officer or by the Board of Directors.

7.      Vice Chairman Of The Board. In the absence of the Chief Executive Officer or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, if the Chairman of the Board or another individual has not been designated Chief Executive Officer, the Vice Chairman, or if there be more than one, the Vice Chairmen, in the order determined by the Board of Directors, shall perform the duties of the Chief Executive Officer, and when so acting shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Chief Executive Officer.  At all other times, the Vice Chairman or Vice Chairmen shall perform such duties and have such powers as the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

8.      The Vice President. In the absence of the President or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, the Vice President (or in the event there be more than one Vice President, the Executive Vice President and then the other Vice President or Vice Presidents in the order designated, or in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election) shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.  The Vice Presidents shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

9.      The Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings of the Company and of the Board of Directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required.  The Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer, under whose supervision he shall be.  The Secretary shall have custody of the corporate seal of the Company and the Secretary, or an Assistant Secretary, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by his signature or by the signature of such Assistant Secretary.  The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the Company and to attest the affixing by his signature.

10.  The Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary, or if there be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election), shall, in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

11.  The Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Company and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Company in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors.  The Treasurer  shall disburse the funds of the Company as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the President and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all his transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Company.  If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give the Company a bond (which shall be renewed every six (6) years) in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the Company, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the Company.

12.  The Assistant Treasurer. The Assistant Treasurer, or if there shall be more than one, the Assistant Treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election), shall, in the absence of the Treasurer or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

13.  Other Officers, Assistant Officers And Agents. Officers, Assistant Officers and Agents, if any, other than those whose duties are provided for in these Bylaws, shall have such authority and perform such duties as may from time to time be prescribed by resolution of the board of directors.

14.  Absence Of Officers. In the absence of any officer of the Company, or for any other reason the Board of Directors may deem sufficient, the Board of Directors may delegate the powers or duties, or any of such powers or duties, of any officers or officer to any other officer or to any director.

15.  Compensation. The Board of Directors shall have the authority to establish reasonable compensation of all officers for services to the Company.

ARTICLE VII:         INDEMNIFICATION

1.      Right To Indemnification Of Directors And Officers. The Company shall indemnify and hold harmless, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law as it presently exists or may hereafter be amended, any person (a “Covered Person”) who was or is made or is threatened to be made a party or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that such person, or a person for whom such person is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the Company or, while a director or officer of the Company, is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Company or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, against all liability and loss suffered and expenses (including attorneys’ fees) reasonably incurred by such Covered Person in such proceeding.  Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, except as otherwise provided in Section 3 of Article VII of these Bylaws, the Company shall be required to indemnify a Covered Person in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) commenced by such Covered Person only if the commencement of such proceeding (or part thereof) by the Covered Person was authorized in advance by the Board of Directors.

2.      Prepayment Of Expenses Of Directors And Officers. The Company shall pay the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a Covered Person in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition, provided, however, that, to the extent required by law, such payment of expenses in advance of the final disposition of the proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by the Covered Person to repay all amounts advanced if it should be ultimately determined that the Covered Person is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article VII or otherwise.

3.      Claims By Directors And Officers. If a claim for indemnification or advancement of expenses under this Article VII is not paid in full within thirty days after a written claim therefor by the Covered Person has been received by the Company, the Covered Person may file suit to recover the unpaid amount of such claim and, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim.  In any such action the Company shall have the burden of proving that the Covered Person is not entitled to the requested indemnification or advancement of expenses under applicable law.

4.      Indemnification Of Employees And Agents. The Company may indemnify and advance expenses to any person who was or is made or is threatened to be made or is otherwise involved in any proceeding by reason of the fact that such person, or a person for whom such person is the legal representative, is or was an employee or agent of the Company or, while an employee or agent of the Company, is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, against all liability and loss suffered and expenses (including attorney’s fees) reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such proceeding.  The ultimate determination of entitlement to indemnification of persons who are nondirector or officer employees or agents shall be made in such manner as is determined by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion.  Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, the Company shall not be required to indemnify a person in connection with a proceeding initiated by such person if the proceeding was not authorized in advance by the Board of Directors.

5.      Advancement Of Expenses Of Employees And Agents. The Company may pay the expenses (including attorney’s fees) incurred by an employee or agent in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition on such terms and conditions as may be determined by the Board of Directors.

6.      Non-Exclusivity Of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Article VII shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the certificate of incorporation, these Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

7.      Other Indemnification. The Company’s obligation, if any, to indemnify any person who was or is serving at its request as a director, officer or employee of another Company, partnership, joint venture, trust, organization or other enterprise shall be reduced by any amount such person may collect as indemnification from such other Company, partnership, joint venture, trust, organization or other enterprise.

8.      Insurance. The Board of Directors may, to the full extent permitted by applicable law as it presently exists, or may hereafter be amended from time to time, authorize an appropriate officer or officers to purchase and maintain at the Company’s expense insurance:  (a) to indemnify the Company for any obligation which it incurs as a result of the indemnification of directors, officers and employees under the provisions of this Article VII; and (b) to indemnify or insure directors, officers and employees against liability in instances in which they may not otherwise be indemnified by the Company under the provisions of this Article VII.

9.      Amendment Or Repeal. Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article VII shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.  The rights provided hereunder shall inure to the benefit of any Covered Person and such person’s heirs, executors and administrators.

ARTICLE VIII         CERTIFICATES FOR SHARES

1.      Certificates Of Shares. The shares of the Company shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors of the Company may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares.  Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Company.  Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the Board of Directors, every holder of stock represented by certificates and upon request every holder of uncertificated shares shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Company by the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer, or the President or Vice President, and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company representing the number of shares registered in certificate form.  Any or all the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile.

2.      Signatures Of Former Officer, Transfer Agent Or Registrar. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Company with the same effect as if such person or entity were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

3.      Transfer Of Shares. Transfers of shares of the Company shall be made only on the books of the Company by the holder of record thereof or by his legal representative, who shall furnish proper evidence of authority to transfer, or by his or her attorney thereunto authorized by power of attorney duly executed and filed with the Secretary of the Company, and on surrender for cancellation of certificate for such shares.  Prior to due presentment of a certificate for shares for registration of transfer, the Company may treat a registered owner of such shares as the person exclusively entitled to vote, to receive notifications and otherwise have and exercise all of the right and powers of an owner of shares.

4.      Lost, Destroyed Or Stolen Certificates. Whenever a certificate representing shares of the Company has been lost, destroyed or stolen, the holder thereof may file in the office of the Company an affidavit setting forth, to the best of his knowledge and belief, the time, place, and circumstance of such loss, destruction or theft together with a statement of indemnity sufficient in the opinion of the Board of Directors to indemnify the Company against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss of any such certificate.  Thereupon the Board may cause to be issued to such person or such person’s legal representative a new certificate or a duplicate of the certificate alleged to have been lost, destroyed or stolen.  In the exercise of its discretion, the Board of Directors may waive the indemnification requirements provided herein.

ARTICLE IX  DIVIDENDS

1.      Declarations Of Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the Company, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law.  Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation.

2.      Requirements For Payment Of Dividends. Before payment of any dividend there may be set aside out of any funds of the Company available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve fund to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Company, or for such other purpose as the directors shall think conducive to the interests of the Company, and the directors may abolish any such reserve.

ARTICLE X GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.      Contracts. The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or officers, agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Company, and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

2.      Loans. No loans shall be contracted on behalf of the Company and no evidences of indebtedness shall be issued in its name unless authorized by a resolution of the Board of Directors.  Such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

3.      Checks, Drafts, Etc..All checks, drafts or other orders for the payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the Company shall be signed by one or more officers or agents of the Company and in such manner as shall from time to time be determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.

4.      Deposits. The funds of the Company may be deposited or invested in such bank account, in such investments or with such other depositaries as determined by the Board of Directors.

5.      Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Company shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

6.      Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Company, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware”.  Said seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

7.      Annual Statement. The Board of Directors shall present at each annual meeting, and at any special meeting of the stockholders when called for by vote of the stockholders, a full and clear statement of the business and condition of the Company.

ARTICLE XI:        RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL

1.      Right Of First Refusal. No stockholder shall sell, assign, pledge, or in any manner transfer any of the shares of Common Stock of the corporation (“Common Stock”) or any right or interest therein, whether voluntarily or by operation of law, or by gift or otherwise, except by a transfer which meets the requirements hereinafter set forth in this bylaw:

1.1.   If the stockholder receives from anyone a bona fide offer acceptable to the stockholder to purchase any Common Stock held by such stockholder, then the stockholder shall first give written notice thereof to the Company.  The notice shall name the proposed transferee and state the number of shares of Common Stock to be transferred, the price per share and all other terms and conditions of the offer.

1.2.   For fifteen (15) days following receipt of such notice, the corporation or its assigns shall have the option to purchase all or, with the consent of the stockholder, any lesser part of the Common Stock specified in the notice at the price and upon the terms set forth in such bona fide offer.  In the event the Company elects to purchase all or, as agreed by the stockholder, a lesser part, of the Common Stock, it shall give written notice to the selling stockholder of its election and settlement for said Common Stock shall be made as provided below in paragraph (c).

1.3.   In the event the Company elects to acquire any of the Common Stock of the selling stockholder as specified in said selling stockholder’s notice, the Secretary of the Company shall so notify the selling stockholder and settlement thereof shall be made in cash within thirty (30) days after the Secretary of the Company receives said selling stockholder’s notice; provided that if the terms of payment set forth in said selling stockholder’s notice were other than cash against delivery, the Company shall pay for said Common Stock on the same terms and conditions set forth in said selling stockholder’s notice.

1.4.   In the event the Company does not elect to acquire all of the Common Stock specified in the selling stockholder’s notice, said selling stockholder may, within the sixty (60) day period following the expiration of the option rights granted to the Company, sell elsewhere the Common Stock specified in said selling stockholder’s notice which were not acquired by the Company, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (c) of this bylaw, provided that said sale shall not be on terms and conditions more favorable to the purchaser than those contained in the bona fide offer set forth in said selling stockholder’s notice.  All Common Stock so sold by said selling stockholder shall continue to be subject to the provisions of this bylaw in the same manner as before said transfer.

1.5.   Anything to the contrary contained herein notwithstanding, the following transactions shall be exempt from the provisions of this bylaw:

1.5.1.      A stockholder’s transfer of any or all Common Stock held either during such stockholder’s lifetime or on death by will or intestacy to such stockholder’s family.  “Immediate family” as used herein shall mean spouse, lineal descendent, father, mother, brother, or sister of the stockholder making such transfer.

1.5.2.      A stockholder’s bona fide pledge or mortgage of any Common Stock with a commercial lending institution, provided that any subsequent transfer of said Common Stock by said institution shall be conducted in the manner set forth in this bylaw.

1.5.3.      A stockholder’s transfer of any or all of such stockholder’s Common Stock to any other stockholder of the Company.

1.5.4.      A stockholder’s transfer of any or all of such stockholder’s Common Stock to a person who, at the time of such transfer, is an officer or director of the Company.

1.5.5.      A corporate stockholder’s transfer of any or all of its Common Stock pursuant to and in accordance with the terms of any merger, consolidation, reclassification of Common Stock or capital reorganization of the corporate stockholder, or pursuant to a sale of all or substantially all of the stock or assets of a corporate stockholder.

1.5.6.      A corporate stockholder’s transfer of any or all of its Common Stock to any or all of its stockholders.

1.5.7.      A transfer of any or all of the Common Stock held by a stockholder which is a limited or general partnership to any or all of its partners.

1.5.8.      In any such case, the transferee, assignee, or other recipient shall receive and hold such Common Stock subject to the provisions of this bylaw, and there shall be no further transfer of such Common Stock except in accord with this bylaw.

1.6.   The provisions of this bylaw may be waived with respect to any transfer either by the Company, upon duly authorized action of its Board of Directors, or by the stockholders, upon the express written consent of the owners of a majority of the voting power of the Company (excluding the votes represented by those shares of Common Stock to be sold by the selling stockholder).  This bylaw may be amended or repealed either by a duly authorized action of the Board of Directors or by the stockholders, upon the express written consent of the owners of a majority of the voting power of the corporation.

1.7.   Any sale or transfer, or purported sale or transfer, of Common Stock shall be null and void unless the terms, conditions, and provisions of this bylaw are strictly observed and followed.

1.8.   The foregoing right of first refusal shall terminate on either of the following dates, whichever shall first occur:

1.8.1.      On [Date 10 Years from Adoption of these Bylaws] or

1.8.2.      Upon the date Common Stock of the Company is first offered to the public pursuant to a registration statement filed with, and declared effective by, the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.  The certificates representing the Common Stock shall bear the following legend so long as the foregoing right of first refusal remains in effect:

THE SHARES REPRESENTED BY THIS CERTIFICATE ARE SUBJECT TO A RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL OPTION IN FAVOR OF THE CORPORATION, AS PROVIDED IN THE BYLAWS OF THE CORPORATION.”

1.9.   The provisions of this bylaw shall not apply to any transfer of shares of Preferred Stock of the Company or the shares of Common Stock issued upon conversion thereof.

ARTICLE XII:       AMENDMENTS

1.      Amendments. These Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed or new Bylaws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the Board of Directors, when such power is conferred upon the Board of Directors by the Certificate of Incorporation, at any regular meeting of the stockholders or of the Board of Directors or at any special meeting of the stockholders or of the Board of Directors if notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new Bylaws be contained in the notice of such special meeting.  If the power to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws is conferred upon the Board of Directors by the Certificate of Incorporation it shall not divest or limit the power of the stockholders to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws.

 



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