Financial capital, simply defined, is the earnings generated from funds contributed by lenders for acquiring real capital equipment and services, in order to enable the business entity to produce goods and services. It only includes earnings that the business retains.

Real capital equipment refers to physical tools that aid in the production of goods or services. For instance, shovels can be considered real capital equipment for gravediggers, while sewing machines are the real capital equipment for tailors.

Thus, financial capital or investment capital is the money a business entity uses to obtain plant, machinery, tools, and other equipment for producing goods or providing services.

Understanding Financial Capital in Detail

Capital refers to assets that are used for producing goods or services. All items, like machinery, tools, and buildings, that are directly used for manufacturing goods or services are called capital goods. Financial capital is the money used for purchasing capital goods. Debt and equity are the two sources for raising financial capital.

What Is Capital?

Capital is the investment made to create wealth. The investment may be sourced from money, credit, or some other form of funding. Individuals often use capital for making down payments on property and creating a portfolio of stock investment.

In economics, there are four essential components of production and capital is one of them. The other three components of productions include natural resources, labor, and entrepreneurship.

In accounting, capital is different from operational expenditure. A business can't use it for paying dividends or lowering the prices of its products. Capital must be used to generate profits in the future.

Capital mostly denotes financial capital. However, it may also refer to human capital or the value of manpower. Social capital refers to the value of the human network.

Types of Business Capital

There are three different types of capital:

  • Debt
  • Equity
  • Specialty capital

Debt

  • Debt is the amount of funds raised from loans and bonds.
  • Business must pay back the debt with interest.
  • Debt lets you raise funds without giving ownership rights to the lender.
  • Initially, entrepreneurs borrow funds from their friends and family or through their credit cards.
  • Once you have built a track record, you can apply for bank loans and assistance schemes from the federal government.
  • When the business becomes large, you can issue bonds to investors.

Equity

Equity is the amount of funds raised by selling a share in ownership of the business. Investors may accept an ownership interest in return for their investment if they believe that the business will give them an acceptable return on their money. Since equity investors are owners of the company, they share risks and profits alike. Unlike lenders, they cannot claim any interest or guaranteed payments.

Equity is especially helpful when the business is not able to get enough funds required to buy capital goods. Common sources of equity for startups include family members, friends, angel investors, and venture capitalists. Once the business is well-established, it can raise equity by issuing stock to the public.

Specialty Capital

Sometimes, a company may be able to generate additional cash flow through efficiency in business operations. The funds so generated are called specialty capital.

If your business suppliers agree for a delayed payment, it's known as vendor financing. Supply chain financing, on the other hand, is similar to payday loans.

Often, banks lend the invoice amount of your business after deducting their fee. You can also create some capital by making wise investments.

What Is Capital Structure?

  • Capital structure is how you create and manage your capital.
  • Most of the companies use a balanced mix of debt and equity to fund their capital requirements.
  • Analysts often use a debt-to-equity ratio for determining the financial health of a company.
  • A debt-to-equity ratio of 50 percent or more means that the company has more debt than equity. Such companies are said to be highly leveraged and hence considered to be riskier.

Capital Markets

One of the major factors behind the economic success of the United States is the easy access to capital. America's financial markets are among the most sophisticated in the entire world. The high level of transparency allows investors to get information on each and every aspect of the company they have invested in or are planning to invest in.

Wall Street employs talented people and powerful technology, allowing the U.S. banks to control global transactions worth billions of dollars.

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